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Oral Submucous fibrosis Clinic in Mumbai

Oral Submucous fibrosisOral Submucous fibrosis

What would you call a disease when it comes to consumption of sweet and tasty stuff commonly used in traditional Indian functions? Oral Submucous fibrosis is the name that may dread you and inhibit your food choices. It commonly turns into oral cancer.

Patients suffering from Oral submucous fibrosis face severe burning sensation in mouth while eating. They gradually develop restriction while opening mouth, disfigured face, and a lifelong risk for oral cancer.

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What is Oral Submucous fibrosis?

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic debilitating disease. According to Medscape.com, it is the oral cavity characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the submucosal tissues (lamina propria and deeper connective tissues). Oral submucous fibrosis results in marked rigidity and faces severe issues while opening the mouth.

This condition is linked to oral cancers also associated with areca nut or betel quid chewing, and a habit like tobacco chewing.

Pathogenesis

Pathogenesis of the disease is not well established. However, the oral submucous fibrosis causes are believed to be multifactorial. Exposure to areca nut and tobacco leads to oral submucous fibrosis in individuals. Also, genetic immunologic and nutritional tendencies influence the contraction of the disease. Numerous factors trigger this disease and cause juxta epithelial inflammatory reaction in the oral submucous fibrosis.

Following are the few factors that cause oral submucous fibrosis:

  • Areca nut chewing
  • Digestion of chilies
  • Genetic and immunologic processes
  • Nutritional deficiencies

What are the causes of Oral submucous fibrosis?

In the initial phase of Oral submucous fibrosis, the submucous feels leathery with palpable fibrotic bands. At the progressive stage, the oral submucous loses its resiliency also becomes blanched and stiff. This disease is believed to begin in the subsequent part of the oral cavity and gradually spread outward.

Causes:

Consuming any dried products such as masala paan, supari, and gutkha with higher concentrations of areca nut and tobacco appear to cause the disease.

1. Areca nut-

Areca nut is the main component of paan masalas and ghutkas, responsible for increased production of fibres in the mouth. Thus, it leads to reduced mouth opening and causes oral sub mucous fibrosis.

2. Iron, B12 and folic acid deficiencies-

The deficiency of these essential components prepares preconditions for oral submucous fibrosis which makes the oral cavity vulnerable to chilies.

3. Viruses, Fungal infections-

Yeast is a common fungus associated with oral submucous fibrosis.

4. The geographical difference-

The consumption of chilly is more or less similar in all countries and continents. However, still, the oral submucous fibrosis is more predominant in India compare to other countries.

5. Immunological diseases-

Dysfunction of the immune system and immunological deficiency syndromes causes immunological disease. In this disease, the immune system stops guarding the body against germs, bacteria, and viruses.Following are the other causes include:

  • Extreme climatic conditions
  • Extended absence to iron and vitamins in the diet

Symptoms:

Following are few symptoms of this disease include:

  • Xerostomia
  • Recurrent ulceration
  • Pain in the ear or deafness
  • Nasal intonation of voice
  • Restriction happen in the movement of the soft palate
  • A budlike shrunken uvula
  • Thinning and stiffening of the lips
  • Pigmentation of the Oral submucous fibrosis
  • Dryness of the mouth and burning sensation
  • Decreased mouth opening and tongue protrusion

How is Oral submucous fibrosis treated?

The treatment of Oral submucous fibrosis is divided under various factors. Following are few treatments for Oral submucous fibrosis:

1. Supportive treatment- Tobacco cessation is one of the major treatments against Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Always remember, the early you quit, the better it is for you. You can take counselling by the dentist related to this habit and maintain oral hygiene.

2. Physiotherapy exercises- In this treatment, the patient is asked to perform simple exercises like blowing of balloons, blowing of a conch, ice-cream stick exercises to increase mouth opening.

3. Medicinal treatment- In this treatment, the doctors prescribe the topical application of corticosteroids for reducing burning sensation and systemic steroids. Following are few medical treatments:

  • Administrating vitamins, iron, antioxidants, and minerals supplements.
  • Injection of Placentrex and hyaluronic acid

4. Surgical approach- In this treatment, it involves surgical excision of bands followed by placement of grafts from the tongue. This treatment is now done by Excision by LASER therapy.

Ultimately, it is up to you, always think and question yourself whether you want to live a long and healthy life or want to risk and ruin your life with tobacco.

Hope this brings a change in us and our surrounding.

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